Principal author:

Professor Peter Koopman, PhD, DSc, FAA Emeritus Professor of Developmental Biology Institute for Molecular Bioscience The University of Queensland

Peter Koopman is a research scientist whose career studying the biology and genetics of sex development spans more than 30 years. Since his work on the discovery of the Y-chromosomal testis-determining gene Sry, he has become the most prolific researcher in the field worldwide, publishing 300 papers in scientific journals.

See also:



Professor Garry Warne, AM, MBBS, FRACP Honorary Professorial Fellow Departmant of Paediatrics The University of Melbourne

Garry Warne is a clinician and researcher who is highly regarded for his work with children with DSD. He recently retired from the medical staff of the Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne where for 19 years he was Director of Endocrinology and Diabetes and for 13 years, the Director of Royal Children's Hospital International. He has authored several books and other resources relating to DSD, and has helped found a number of DSD support groups in Australia.


Dr Andrew Cotterill, MBBS, FRACP, MRCP(UK), MD Mater Children's Hospital, Brisbane Principal Queensland Paediatric Endocrinology

Andrew Cotterill is a medical physician specializing in diagnosing and treating endocrine disorders in babies, children and adolescents. He is a past president of the Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group, which fosters a sharing of research and clinical care among paediatric endocrinologists across Australia and New Zealand.


Morgan Carpenter, JP Executive Director Intersex Human Rights Australia

Morgan Carpenter is a bioethicist and intersex activist who has written submissions to Senate inquiries on anti-discrimination legislation, and involuntary or coerced sterilisation, and also participated in hearings on those inquiries.. He has consulted to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, the World Health Organization, the ACT government, GATE, and acted as an advisory group member for the Australian Human Rights Commission, Australian Bureau of Statistics, NSW Health, and other bodies.


Professor Vincent Harley, PhD Hudson Institute of Medical Research Melbourne

Vincent Harley is a research scientist specializing in molecular genetics. His research focuses on sex determining genes, gonadal development and intersex conditions.


Bronwyn Adams, BSc/BA Acting Manager Communications and Engagement The University of Queensland

Bronwyn Adams has more than 15 years' experience as a science writer and communications officer, preparing reports, social media communications and press releases dealing with a range of issues in the life sciences.


We thank these expert reviewers, and acknowledge Mei Goh, Rebekka van Kampen, Jimmy Wu and Lance Rathbone (The University of Queensland) for graphics and website construction.



Last updated: 4 August 2021

Edit history: Author P. Koopman 9/2013, revised 10/2013, 7/2015